Atalay Alem Ejigu

Full Name Name: Atalay

Father’s name: Alem


Education attended Diploma in Sanitary Science, 1965

Doctor of Medicine, 1983

Diploma in Clinical Psychiatry, 1989

PhD in Mental Health Epidemiology, 1997

Academic rank Professor
Working for AAU Since 2000
Administrative positions held


Medical Director, Adigrat Hospital, 1983-1984

Medical Director, Amanuel Hospital, 1989-1995

Head, Staff Development Unit, AAU, 2005-2006

Reform Officer for Health Sciences to lead the establishment of College of Health Sciences, AAU, 2006-2009

Executive Director, College of Health Sciences, AAU, 2009-2012



Awards, recognitions, memberships of international bodies/ journals – editorial roles/ initiatives etc Awards

1999 Certificate of Recognition, for contribution to mental health research in Ethiopia, from the Theodore and Vada Stanley Foundation, USA, 1999

2006                    One of the three Recipients of Robert Giel award for contribution in teaching, service development and research in mental health in Ethiopia,

2013          Best researcher of the year awarded by College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa   University 2013          Distinguished Research Award, Addis Ababa University


1998–2002  Led the establishment of mental health services in Butajira, Zeway and Yabello Health Centers through an ongoing mental health research Project in which I was principal investigator.

1985 to date                           Member, Ethiopian Medical Association.

1995 to date                           Member, Ethiopian Public Health Association.

1996 to date                           Reviewer of manuscripts for the Ethiopian Journal of Health Development

1998—2005                            Member, International Advisory Board, American Psychiatric Press, Textbook of Psychiatry.

Consultancy work

1999—2002                            Editorial consultant, the Ethiopian Journal of Health Development

2003 to date                           Editorial Board Member, the Ethiopian Journal of Health Development

2001 to date                           Founding member, Ethiopian Psychiatric Association

2004 to date                           Member, Executive Committee, International Mental Health at the Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London

2006- 2011                              Member, Global Mental Health Movement Group

2005 – 2010                    Member, advisory group to WHO IMAI Second Level

HIV Clinical Learning Programme development to facilitate Secondary Level HIV/mental health therapy scale-up.

April 2006   Participated in teaching  young African Psychiatrists  On Leadership and Professional Skills Course organized by Department of Psychiatry, AAU and Prof Sartorius, former Director of Division of Mental Health in WHO Head quarters, Geneva.

2007 to date Member, African Psychiatric Journal Editorial Board

2008 to date    Member, Maudsley International Advisory Board

2005-2009  Member, Board, Child Development and Training Center in Ethiopia

2004 to date  Founding member and, for two years executive board member and, active contributor to Mental   Health Society in Ethiopia which is working to support   the mentally ill and their families in the community

June 2008                               Thought parents of Mount Olive Academy School Students on child development and how to handle developmental changes in their children

2008 -2011    Member, World Psychiatric Association ( WPA) Task Force which worked to produce a guideline on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in theImplementation of Community Mental Health Care

Research interest Epidemiology of mental disorders in different population groups; intervention trials in the adult population.
Publications in reputable journals
  1. Teferra S, Shibre T, Fekadu A, Medhin G, Wakwoya A, Alem A, Jacobsson L. Five-year clinical course and outcome of schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Schizophrenia Research 2012; 136:137-42
  2. Hanlon, C. / Senturk, V., Medhin, G., Dewey, M., Araya, M., Alem, A., Prince, M., Stewart, R. Impact of perinatal somatic and common mental disorder symptoms on functioning in Ethiopian women: The P-MaMiE population-based cohort study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 2012; 136, 340-349.
  3. 3.      Gregory I, Fricchione, G, Borba C, Alem A, Shibre T, Carney J, Henderson D. Capacity Building in global mental health: professional training. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2012; 20: 47-57.
  4. Shibre T, Medhin G, Teferra S, Wakwoya A, Berhanu E, Abdulahi A, Alem A, Fekadu A.  Predictors of carer-burden in schizophrenia: a five year follow-up study in Butajira, Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J. 2012: 50 :125-133.
  5. 5.      Teferra S, Shibre T, Fekadu A, Medhin G, Waqwoya A, Alem A, Kullgren G, Jacobsson L. Five-year mortality in a cohort of people with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. BMC Psychiatry 2011, 11:165
  6. 6.      Teferra S Hanlon C, Alem A, Jacobsson L, Shibre T. Khat chewing n persons with severe mental illness in Ethiopia: a qualititative study exploring perspectives of patients and caregivers. Transcult Psychiatry. 2011; 48: 455-472.
  7. Seid A, Devey G, Alem A, Zenebe G, Medhin G, Shibre T. Population norms for the mini-mental state examination in Ethiopia. Ethiop. Med J.2011: 49:239-247.
  8. 8.      Amberbir A, Medhin G, Alem A, Britton J, Davey G, Venn A. The role of Acetaminophen and Geohelmnth infection on the incidence of wheeze and eczema: a longitudinal birth cohort study. Am J RespirCrit Care Med. 2010; 183:165-170.
  9. 9.      Amberbir A., Medhin G., Erku W., Alem A., Simms R., Robinson K., Fogarty A., Britton J., Vennand A. Davey G. Effects of Helicobacter pylori, geohelminth infection and selected commensal bacteria on the risk of allergic disease and sensitization in 3-year-old Ethiopian children.Clinical & Experimental Allergy 2011, 1–9.
  10. 10.  Tedla Y, Shibre T, Ali O, Tadele G, Woldeamanuel Y, Asrat D, Aseffa A, Mihret W, Abebe M, Alem A, Medhin G, Habte A.Serum antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Herpesvidae family viruses in individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a case control study. EMJ 2011: 49:211-220.
  11. 11.  Medhin G, Hanlon C, Dewey M, Alem A,Tesfaye F, Worku B,  Tomlinson M, Prince M. Prevalence and Predictors of under Nutrition Among Infants Aged 6 and 12 months in Butajira, Ethiopia: the P-MaMiE Birth Cohort. BMC Public Health ; 2010
  12. 12.  Medhin G, Hanlon C, Dewey M, Alem A, Tesfaye F, Lakew Z, Worku B, Araya M, Abdulahi A, Tomlinson M, Hughes M, Patel V, Prince M. The Effect of Maternal Common Mental Disorders on Infant Under nutrition in Butajira, Ethiopia: the P-MaMiE Study. BMC Psychiatry; 2010 ; 10:32.
  13. 13.  Bauer AM, Fielke K, Brayley J, Araya M, Alem A,Frankle BL, Ficchione GL. Tackling the Global Mental Health Challenge: Psychosomatic Medicine/Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Perspective: Psychosomatics. 2010:51:185-193
  14. 14.  Ross J, Hanlon C, Medhin, G, Alem A, Tesfaye F, Worku B, Dewey M, Patel V, Prince M. Peri-natal Mental Distress and Infant Morbidity in Ethiopia: A Cohort Study: Archives of Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal ED. 2010; doi:10.1136/ adc.2010.183327
  15. Shibre T, Tefera S, Morgan C, Alem A, Exploring the apparent Absence of Psychosis Amongst Pastoralist Community of Southern Ethiopia: a Mixed Method Follow-up Study. World Psychiatry. 2010:9:98-102.
  16. Hanlon, C., Medhin, G., Alem, A., Araya, M., Abdulahi, A., Tomlinson, M., Hughes, M., Patel, V., Dewey, M., Prince, M.: Sociocultural practices in Ethiopia: association with onset and persistence of postnatal common mental disorders. Br J Psychiatry. 2010; 197:468-75.
  17. Hanlon C, Whitley R, Wondimagegn D, AlemA, Prince M. Between Life and Death: Exploring the Socio-cultural Context of Antenatal Mental Distress in Rural Ethiopia. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 2010:13:385-393
  18. Hanlon, C., Wondimagegn, D., and Alem, A. Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in Africa. World Psychiatry, 2010: 9: 185-189.
  19. Thornicroft G, Alem A, Dos Santos R, et al. WPA Guidance on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Implementation of Mental Health Care. World Psychiatry, 2010: 9: 67-77.
  20. Alem A, Pain C, Araya M, Hodges B. Creating a Psychiatry Resident Program in Ethiopia, for Ethiopians:  The Toronto Addis Ababa Psychiatry Project (TAAPP). Academic Psychiatry, 2010. 34: 424-432
  21. Belyhun Y, Medhin G, Amberbir A, Erko B, Hanlon C, Alem A. Prevalence and risk factors for soil-transmitted helminth infection in mothers and their infants in Butajira, Ethiopia: a population-based study. BMC Public Health. 2010; 10:21
  22. Servili, C, Medhin G, Hanlon C, Tomlinson M, Worku B, Baheretibeb Y, Dewey M, Alem A, Prince M. Maternal common mental disorders and infant development in Ethiopia: the PaMiE Birth Cohort. BMC Public Health. 2010; 10; 693.
  23. Hanlon C, Wondimagegn D, Alem A, et al. Postnatal mental distress in relation to the socio-cultural practices of childbirth: A key informant study from Ethiopia. Social Science and Medicine, 2009: 69: 1211-1290
  24. Tesfaye M, Hanlon C, Wondimagegn D, Alem A. Detecting postnatal common disorders in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Kessler Scales: J. Affective Disorders, 2009: 122: 102-108
  25. Deyessa N, Berhane Y, Alem A, et al. Intimate partner violence and Depression among Women in Rural Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: 2009, 5:8 doi:10.1186/1745-0179-5-8
  26. Hanlon, C.,Medhin, G., Alem, A., Tesfaye, F., Lakew, Z., Worku, B., Dewey, M., Araya, M., Abdulahi, A., Hughes, M., Tomlinson, M., Patel, V. and Prince, M. Impact of antenatal common mental disorders upon perinatal outcomes in Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE population-based cohort study. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2009; 14:156-166.
  27. Anbesse B, Hanlon C, Alem A, et al. Migration and mental health: a study of low-income Ethiopian women working in Middle Eastern countries. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 2009, 55:557-68.
  28. Shibre T, Alem A, Araya M, et al. Trimethoprim as adjuvant treatment in schizophrenia: a doubled blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. Schizophrenia Bulletin;2009: 36:846-851
  29. 29.  Yitayew Y, Flisher AJ, Alem A, Baheretebeb Y. Pathways to Psychiatric Care in Ethiopia. Psychological Medicine, 2009, 39:475-83
  30. Zergaw A, Hailemariam D, Alem A, Kebede D.  A longitudinal comparative analysis of economic and family caregiver burden due to bipolar disorder: Journal of African Psychiatry. 2008:11: 191-198
  31. Deyessa N, Berhane Y, Alem A, et al. Derpession among Women in Rural Ethiopia as related to socio-economic factors: a community based study on women in reproductive age group. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 2008, 36:589-397
  32. Alem A, Kebede D, Fekadu A, et al. Clinical Course and Outcome of Schizophrenia in a Predominantly Treatment-Naive Cohort in Rural Ethiopia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2008:35: 646-654
  33. Alem A, Jacobsson L, Hanlon C. Community-based mental health care in Africa: mental health workers’ views. World Psychiatry 2008; 7:54-57
  34. Hanlon, C.,Medhin, G., Alem, A., Araya, M., Abdulahi, A., Tesfaye, M., Wondimagegn, D., Taha, H., Anbesse, B., Baheretibeb, Y., Dewey, M. and Prince, M. Measuring common mental disorders in women in Ethiopia: Reliability and construct validity of the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2008:43: 653-659.
  35. Hanlon C, Medhin G, AlemA, et al. Detecting perinatal common mental disorders in Ethiopia: Validation of the self-reporting questionnaire and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. J Affect Disord; 2008: 108:251-262.
  36. 36.  Fekadu A, O’Donovan M, Shibre T, Alem A, Validity of the concept of minor depression, Ethiopia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. J NervMent Dis 2008 196: 22-28
  37. 37.  Shibre T, Alem A, Tekle-Haimanot R, et al. Community Attitude Towards Eplepsy in a Rural Ethiopian Setting: A Re-visit after 15 years. Ethiop. Med. J. 2008; 46: 251-259.
  38. Fekadu A, Desta M, Alem A, Prince M. A  Descriptive Analysis of Admissions to Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital in Ethiopia. Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2007;21: 173-178
  39. 39.  Fekadu A, Alem A, Medhin G, et al. Utility of the concept of minor depressive disorder: Evidence from a large rural community sample in a developing country setting.J Affect Disord. 2007: 104:111-118.
  40. Desta M, Hägglöf B, Kebede D, Alem A.  Socio-demographic and psychopathologic correlates of enuresis in urban Ethiopian children. ActaPaediatrica. 2007:96: 556–560.
  41. Fekadu A, Alem A, Hanlon C. Alcohol and Drug abuse in Ethiopia: past, present and future. African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies. 2007:6: 39-53
  42. 42.  Shibre T, Alem A, Tekle-Haimanot R, et al. Perception of Stigma in People with Epilepsy and their Relatives in Butajira, Ethiopia. Ethiop.J.Health Dev.2006: 20: 170-176
  43. 43.  Alem A, Kebede D, Mitike G, et al.Unprotected sex, sexually transmitted infections and problem drinking among   female sex workers in Ethiopia. Ethiop.J.HealthDev. 2006:20: 93-98
  44. 44.  Alem A,Zergaw A, Kebede D, et al. Child labor and childhood behavioral and mental health problems in Ethiopia. Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2000: 2006: 119-126
  45. 45.  Fekadu D,  Alem A, Hägglöf B. The prevalence of mental health problems in Ethiopian child laborers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2006: 47:954-9
  46. 46.  Fekadu A, Kebede D, Alem A,Fekadu D, Mogga S, Negash A, Medhin G, Beyero T,  Shibre T. Clinical outcome in bipolar disorder in a community-based follow-up study in Butajira-Ethiopia. ActaPsychiatr Scand; 2006: 114: 426-434
  47. 47.  Mogga S, Prince M, Alem A, et al. Outcome of major depression in Ethiopia: Population-based study. British Journal of Psychiatry; 2006: 189:241-246.
  48. 48.  Kebede D, Alem A, Shibre T, Negash A, Deyassa N, and Beyero. Symptomatic and functional outcomes of bipolar disorder in Butajira, Ethiopia.  Journal of Affective Disorders; 2006:90:239-49
  49. 49.  Kebede D, Alem A,Mitike G, et al. Khat and alcohol use and risky sex behaviour among in-school and out-of-school youth in Ethiopia. BMC Public Health, 2006 :
  50. Hanlon, C.,Fekadu, D., Sullivan, D., Alem, A., Prince, M. Teaching Psychiatry in Ethiopia. International Psychiatry 2006:3:17-20
  51. 51.  Kebede D, Alem A, Shibre T, Negash A, Deyassa N, and Beyero. Short-term symptomatic and functional outcomes of schizophrenia in Butajira, Ethiopia.  Schizophrenia Research. 2005:78:171-185.
  52. 52.  Negash A,Alem A,Kebede D, et al. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Bipolar I Disorder in Butajira, Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2005: 87:193-201
  53. Leekassa R, Bizuneh E, Alem A, et al.   Community Diagnosis of Common Skin Diseases in the Zay Community of the Zeway Islands, Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J. 2005:43:189-195.
  54. Alem A, Araya M, Melaku Z, et al. Mental Distress in Medical Students of Addis Ababa University. Ethiop Med J. 2005: 43:159-166.
  55. 55.  Kebede D, Fekadu A, Alem A, et al. The Distribution of Mental Disorders Among an Isolated island Community in Southern Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J. 2005:443:71-78.
  56. 56.  Kebede D, Alem A, Shibre T, Negash A, Deyassa N, and Beyero T. Socio-demographic correlates of bipolar I disorder in Butajira, rural Ethiopia. East African Medical Journal. 2005:82:34-39
  57. 57.  Kebede D, Alem A, Shibre T, et al. Health Related Quality of Life (SF-36) Survey in Butajira, Rural Ethiopia: Normative Data and Evaluation of Reliability and Validity. Ethiop Med J. 2004:42:289-297.
  58. 58.  Leekassa R, Bizuneh R, Alem A. Prevalence of Mental Distress in the Outpatient Clinic of a Specialized Leprosy Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2002. Lepr Rev; 2004:75:367-375.
  59. 59.  Beyero T, Alem A, Kebede D, et al. Mental Disorders among the Borana Semi-nomadic Community in Southern Ethiopia.  World Psychiatry; 2004:110-114.
  60. 60.  Alem A, Kebede D, Shibre T, et al. Comparison of Computer Assisted SCAN diagnoses and clinical diagnoses of major mental disorders in Butajira, rural Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J; 2004:137-143.
  61. 61.  Kebede D, Alem A, Shibre T, Fekadu A, Fekadu D, Negash A, Deyassa, N., Beyero, T. The Socio-demographic correlates of schizophrenia in Butajira, rural Ethiopia. Schizophrenia Research. 2004; 69:133-141.
  62. 62.  Fekadu D, Alem A. Retrospective Analysis of 10 years Medical Board Proceedings at Amanuel Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J: 2004: 42: 23- 33.
  63. 63.  Fekadu A, Shibre T, Alem A, Kebede D, Kibreab S, Negash A, Owen MJ. Bipolar disorder among an isolated island community in Ethiopia. Journal of Affective disorder2004; 80:1-10
  64. 64.  Alem A. Psychiatry in Ethiopia: country profile. International Bulletin of the Royal College of Psychiatrists. 2004: 4: 8-10
  65. 65.  Negash A, Kebede D, Alem A,Melaku Z, Deyessa N, Shibire T, Fekadu A, Fekadu D, Medhin G, Jacobsson L, and Kullgren G. Neurological Soft Signs in Bipolar I Disorder patients, Butajira- Ethiopia. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2004: 80: 221-230.
  66. 66.  Gureje O and Alem A. Hidden science? A glimpse at some work in Africa. World Psychiatry. 2004; 3:3.
  67. 67.  Kebede D, Alem A, Shibre T, Negash A, Deyassa N, Beyero T. Health related quality of life (SF-36) Survey in Butajira, rular Ethiopia; normative data and evaluation of reliability and validity. Ethiop. Med J. 2004;289-297.
  68. 68.  Kebede D, Alem A,Shibre T, Fekadu A, Fekadu D, Negash A, Deyassa N, Jacobsson L and Kullgren G. Onset and Clinical Course of Schizophrenia in Butajira-Ethiopia. Soc Psychiatry PsychiatrEpidemiol; 2003:38:625-631.
  69. 69.  Kebede D, Alem A, Deyessa N, et al. Socio-demographic correlates of depressive disorder in Butajira, rural Ethiopia. Cent Afr J Med 2003:49:78-83.
  70. 70.  Alem A, Kebede D. Conducting psychiatric research in the developing world: challenges and rewards. British Journal of Psychiatry, (Editorial) 2003:182:185-187.
  71. 71.  Shibre T, Kebede D, Alem A, Kebreab S, Melaku Z, Negash A, Deyessa N, Fekadu A, Fekadu D, Medhin G, Negeri C, Jacobsson L Kullgren G. Neurological soft signs (NSS) in 2000 treatment naïve cases with schizophrenia: a community based study in a rural setting. Nord Journal of Psychiatry 2002:56:425-31
  72. 72.  Shibre T, Kebede D, Alem A, NegashDeyessa N, Fekadu A, Fekadu D and Jacobsson L Kullgren G. Schzophrenia: Ilness Impact on Family Members in a Traditional Society- Rural Ethiopia. Soc Psychiatry PsychiatrEpidemiol 2003:38:27-34.
  73. 73.  Shibre T, Kebede D, Alem A,Negash A, Kibreab S, Fekadu A, Fekadu D and Jacobsson L Kullgren G. An evaluation of two screening methods to identify cases with schizophrenia and affective disorders in a community survey in rural Ethiopia.  International Journal of Social Psychiatry; 2002; 48: 200 – 208.
  74. 74.  Alem A,Jacobsson L, Lynöe N, Kullgren G. Attitudes and practices among Ethiopian health care professionals in psychiatry regarding compulsory treatment with special reference to cross-cultural differences.International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 2002:25:1-12.
  75. 75.  Alem A. Community-based Vs hospital-based mental health care: the case of Africa (commentary). World Psychiatry 2002:2:98-99
  76. 76.  Shibre T,  Negash A, Kebede D, Alem A,Fekadu A, Fekadu D, Medhin G, Jacobsson L and Kullgren G. Perception of Stigma among Family Members of Patients with Schizophrenia and Major Mood Disorders in Rural Ethiopia.   Soc Psychiatry PsychiatrEpidemiol 2001:36:299-303
  77. 77.  Fekadu D, Alem A. Child labour and emotional disorders in an urban district, Ethiopia: a rapid assessment on Community perceptions of child labour. Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2001; 15:197-202.
  78. 78.  Alem A. Mental health Services and Epidemiology of Mental Health Problems in Ethiopia: Review Article; Ethiop Med J. 2001:39:153-165
  79. 79.  Gureje O, Alem A. Mental Health Policy Development in Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2000:78:475-482
  80. 80.  Alem A. Human rights and psychiatric care in Africa with particular reference to the Ethiopian situation.  ActaPsychiatr Scand (Suppl) 2000: 101: 93-96.
  81. 81.  Ashenafi Y., Kebede D., Desta M. and Alem A. Prevalence of mental and behavioural disorders in Ethiopian children.East African Medical Journal October 2001:78:308-115
  82. 82.  Fekadu A, Kebede D, Alem A, Shibre T. Use of Psychiatric Rating Instruments in Ethiopia, Teaching Article. Ethiop Med J 2000:38: 191-203.
  83. 83.  Kebede M, Kebede D, Desta M and AlemA.Evaluation of Reliability, Acceptability & Feasibility of the Amharic version of DICA. Ethiop. J. Health. Dev, 2000:14:13-21
  84. 84.  Ashenafi Y, Kebede D, Desta M, Alem A. Socio-demographic correlates of mental and behavioural disorders of children in southern Ethiopia. The East African Medical Journal, 2000:77:565-9.
  85. Fekadu D, Fekadu A, Alem A. Conforming to the International Classification of Diseases: A Critique on Health Information Reporting system in Ethiopia. Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 1999; 13: 281-283
  86. 86.  Tadesse B, Kebede D, Tegegne T, Alem A. Childhood behavioural disorders in Ambo District, Western Ethiopia. I. Prevalenceestimate. Acta PsychiatrScand 1999:100:92-97.
  87. 87.  Awas M, Kebede D, Alem A.  Major mental disorders in Butajira, Ethiopia. ActaPsychiatr Scand 1999:100:56-64.
  88. 88.  Kebede D, Alem A. The epidemiology of alcohol dependence and problem drinking in Addis Ababa. Acta PsychiatrScand 1999:100:30-39.
  89. 89.  Kebede D, Alem A. Major mental disorders in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. III. Neurotic and somatoform disorders in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ActaPsychiatr Scand 1999:100:24-29.
  90. 90.  Kebede D, Alem A. Major mental disorders in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. II. Affective disorders. ActaPsychiatr Scand 1999:100:18-23.
  91. 91.  Kebede D, Alem A. Major mental disorders in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. I. Schizophrenia, schizoaffective and cognitive disorders.Acta PsychiatrScand1999:100:11-17.
  92. 92.  Alem A. Kebede D, and G. Kullgren.  The epidemiology of problem drinking in Butajira, Ethiopia.  ActaPsychiatr Scand 1999:100:77-83.
  93. 93.  Kebede D, Alem A. The prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of mental distress in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ActaPsychiatr Scand 1999:100:5-10.
  94. 94.  Alem A, D. Kebede, and G. Kullgren.  The prevalence and socio demographic correlates of khat chewing in Butajira, Ethiopia. ActaPsychiatr Scand 1999:100:84-91.
  95. 95.  Alem A, D. Kebede, G. WoldesemiatL. Jacobsson and G. Kullgren. The prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of mental distress in Butajira, Ethiopia. ActaPsychiatr Scand 1999:100:48-55.
  96. 96.  Alem A, D. Kebede, L. Jacobsson G. Kullgren.  Awareness and Attitudes of a rural Ethiopian community toward suicidal behaviour: A key informant study in Butajira, Ethiopia. ActaPsychiatr Scand 1999:100:65-69.
  97. 97.  Alem A, L. Jacobsson, M. ArayaD. Kebede, G. Kullgren. How are mental disorders seen and where is help sought in a rural Ethiopian community?  A key informant study in Butajira, Ethiopia. ActaPsychiatr Scand.1999:100:40-47
  98. 98.  Kebede D, Alem A. Suicide attempt and ideation among adults in Addis Ababa. Acta PsychiatrScand 1999:100:35-39.
  99. 99.  Alem A, D. Kebede, L. Jacobsson. and G. Kullgren.  Suicide attempts among adults in Butajira, Ethiopia. ActaPsychiatr Scand 1999:100:70-76.
  100. 100.          Kebede D., Alem A. and Rashid E. The prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of mental distress in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Actapsychiatr Scand 1999; 100; 5-10.
  101. 101.          Berhane Y, Wall S, Kebede D Emmelin A, Enquselassie F, Byass P, Muhe L, Andersson T, Deyessa N, Gossaye,Y, Hogberg U, Alem A,Dahlblom K. Establishing an epidemiological field laboratory in rural areas-potentials for public health research and interventions. The Butajira Rural Health Programme 1987-99. Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 1999; 13 (suppl):1-19.
  102. Tadesse B, Kebede D, Tegegne T, Alem A. Childhood behavioural disorders in Ambo District, Western Ethiopia. II. Validation of the RQC. ActaPsychiatr Scand 1999:100:98-101.
  103. 103.          Alem A and Shibre T. Khat induced Psychosis and its medico-legal implication: A case report. Ethiop. Med. J. 1997:35:137-141.
  104. 104.          Rashid E, Kebede D and Alem A. Evaluation of an Amharic version of The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in Ethiopia. Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 1996:10:69-77
  1. Alem. A, Jacobsson L and Desta M. Perception of Mental disorders and their treatment in Central Ethiopia. Yearbook of Cross-cultural Medicine and Psychotherapy. VWB_verlag fir Wissenschaft und Bildung, 1996:105-119
  2. Alem. A, Desta M, and Araya M. Review Article, Mental Health in Ethiopia: Ethiop. J. Health Dev  1995; 9: 47-62